By Etienne Grandjean (auth.), Ronald Easterby, K. H. E. Kroemer, Don B. Chaffin (eds.)
Assessment of the actual dimensions of the human physique and alertness of this information to the layout of instruments, equip ment, and paintings are definitely one of the oldest arts and sciences. it might be a simple job if all anthropometric dimensions, of everyone, could stick with a basic rule. hence, philosophers and artists embedded their rules concerning the such a lot aesthetic proportions into perfect schemes of excellent proportions. "Golden sections" have been constructed in historical India, China, Egypt, and Greece, and extra lately by means of Leonardo DaVinci, or Albrecht Durer. even if, such canons are fictive on the grounds that real human dimensions and proportions range enormously between contributors. different actual appearances usually were linked to psychological, physiological and behavioral features of the contributors. Hypocrates (about 460-377 BC) taught that there are 4 temperaments (actually, physique fluids) represented via 4 physique forms. The psychiatrist Ernst Kretchmer (1888-1964) proposed that 3 usual somatotypes (pyknic, athletic, aesthenic) may perhaps mirror human personality features. because the 1940's, W. H. Sheldon and his coworkers devised a procedure of 3 physique physiques (endo-, meso-, ectomorphic). The class was once initially qualitative, and only in the near past has been constructed to incorporate genuine measurements.
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H. M. , 4060 10 z Vertex Ectocanthus Neck-Shoulder Rt. Acromion SUprasternale Lt. Acromion Iliocristale Iliospinale Greater Trochanter Thigh Breadth Thigh Clearance - 5 R 0- -10 -20 -30 7 - AO o~ 11 AD - -20 -10 o 10 20 x Figure 2. Two-dimensional plot of average values in centimeters for eleven pointmarks in the x-z plane (D. = "slouched" posture; o = "erect" posture). THREE-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVE MOTION OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The human machine moves by relative displacements of the skeletal linkage system.
Thus, the potential range of variation in body position and mobility may be maximized by behavioral and cultural variables (Maule and Weiner, 1975). Consequently, anthropometrists measuring the body are concerned with standardization of instruments, landmarks, and body configuration. These three technical areas have largely determined the parametric definition of the human machine in current models. In describing the human machine quantitatively, traditional anthropometry has made one-dimensional, scalar measurements of the body in one of two positions: standing or sitting.
S. Air Force's Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. STOUDT 52 contained anthropometric information from some 35 different studies of adults. S. S. civilian populations. Both males and females are included. S. Air Force study. S. , 1977). 5. METHODS OF OBTAINING AND PRESENTING THE DATA Anthropometric data have traditionally been obtained through surveys--actual measurements taken on the human body with anthropometers, calipers, or other mechanical, or sometimes photographic, devices.
Anthropometry and Biomechanics: Theory and Application by Etienne Grandjean (auth.), Ronald Easterby, K. H. E. Kroemer, Don B. Chaffin (eds.)