By R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon
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Extra resources for Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
The fist is never actually within the balloon proper, but still it is surrounded by a portion of the balloon (Fig. 1-9). The part of the serous membrane covering a viscus is called the visceral serous membrane (visceral pericardium, visceral pleura, and visceral peritoneum). The serous membrane lining a body cavity is called the parietal serous membrane (parietal pericardium, parietal pleura, and parietal peritoneum). The continuity of each serous sac is maintained by connecting layers of serous membrane that extend from the visceral layer of each serous membrane to the parietal layer of the same serous membrane.
A decrease in size from normal is called atrophy. Failure of a tissue or organ to develop is called aplasia, while incomplete development or defective development of a tissue or organ is called hypoplasia. Reproduction of a cell or of an organism implies the ability to produce more cells or more organisms that are essentially the same as the original. Some fully differentiated cells, for instance nerve cells, do not normally retain the ability to reproduce in the adult. Cells may be found in solutions whose composition is quite different from that of the fluid within the cells.
Transport into and out of cells may occur by simple and facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endocytosis, or exocytosis. ) Simple and Facilitated Diffusion Diffusion is a passive mechanism. It is simply the distribution of a substance in a solvent medium, usually water, so that it becomes equally concentrated throughout the medium. Diffusion occurs because all molecules and ions have kinetic energy. They collide with each other and bounce away, becoming so dispersed in the solvent that an equal concentration appears throughout.
Anatomy and physiology of farm animals by R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon