By Hywel Williams
The 500 years that separate the mid-tenth century from the mid-15th century represent a serious and formative interval within the background of Europe. This was once the age of the procedure of felony and armed forces legal responsibility often called 'feudalism', and of the beginning and consolidation of robust kingdoms in England, France and Spain; it was once an period of urbanization and the growth of exchange, of the development of the good Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals, of courtly romance and the artwork of the troubadour, and of the founding of celebrated seats of studying in Paris, Oxford and Bologna. however it used to be additionally an epoch characterized by way of brutal army event within the launching of armed pilgrimages to free up Jerusalem from Muslim regulate, of the brutal dynastic clash of the Hundred Years' warfare and of the devastating pandemic of the Black loss of life. In a chain of scholarly yet obtainable articles - followed by way of an array of gorgeous and real photos of the period, plus timelines, maps, boxed positive factors and exhibit prices - extraordinary historian Hywel Williams sheds revelatory mild on each point of a wealthy and complicated interval of ecu heritage. Ottonians and Salians; upward thrust of the Capetians; Normans in England; start of the city-states; The Normans in Sicily; the 1st campaign; The Investiture contest; The Hohenstaufen; The Angevin Empire; 12th-century Renaissance; Triumph of the Capetians; The 3rd campaign; The Albigensian campaign; the honor of Islamic Spain; the dominion of Naples; The Hundred Years conflict I; The Hundred Years warfare II; Avignon and the Schism; The Golden Age of Florence; The Reconquista; Popes, Saints and Heretics; Medieval society; Medieval tradition; Medieval struggle.
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Additional resources for Age of Chivalry: The Story of Medieval Europe, 950 to 1450
The means by which this great transformation came to pass form the subject matter of this book. 500 onward: the traditions of imperial Rome now yielded to those of the Germanic peoples, such as the Franks and the Lombards, who had migrated to the south and west. New kingdoms were thereby established in western Europe, and monarchy’s institutional authority turned former citizens into subjects. A process of Christianization was encouraged by missionaries, sponsored by rulers and often imposed on subjugated pagan peoples, and monasticism became the supreme expression of European religious life.
When Edward died without issue at the beginning of 1066 the English aristocracy chose the earl’s son and successor Harold Godwinson as king, and he was duly crowned. The Scandinavian dimension to English kingship had one final card to play: Harthacnut was supposed to have promised Magnus I of Norway that if either died without issue the other would rule as king in both countries. Harald III Hardrada, king of Norway, therefore pursued a claim to the throne, and Harold of England’s estranged brother Tostig Godwinson, the earl of Northumbria, supported him.
The Norman readiness to learn, adapt and assimilate gave them a swift command over conquered territories. Their evolution of the motte-and-bailey castle, a mound surrounded by a ditched enclosure, invariably marked the Normans’ implacable territorial penetration. Their championing of religious orthodoxy was typically authoritarian, but their support for Benedictine monasticism, especially the foundations at Bec and Caen, turned Normandy into a pioneering center of 11th-century scholarship. ABOVE A detail of the Bayeux Tapestry depicting Harold, king of England, being hit in the eye by an arrow at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Age of Chivalry: The Story of Medieval Europe, 950 to 1450 by Hywel Williams