By Angela O'rand, John C Henretta
Within the usa, older populations convey the top degrees of monetary inequality of all age teams. throughout all complicated societies, the inequalities saw in older populations stem from structural and person tactics that differentiate the lifestyles classes of girls and males and yield exact styles of financial inequality in maturity and outdated age.Age and Inequality examines the structural and person bases of inequality and getting older within the usa, specifically in contemporary a long time. The interaction of the employment method with private and non-private social assurance structures operates to constitution the shapes of labor careers and the styles of go out from those careers in past due maturity and outdated age.Gender inequality around the lifestyles path is a vital part of age inequality. exertions marketplace constitution, kingdom regulations, and existence path elements equivalent to fertility and the department of family exertions systematically differentiate men’s and women’s paintings careers.Aging and retirement within the twenty-first century bring up issues relating to public welfare and industry rules affecting hard work exits and source of revenue aid structures over the subsequent part century. Angela O’Rand and John Henretta contemplate the results of the altering place of work and altering public guidelines for ladies and males.
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Extra info for Age and Inequality: Diverse Pathways Through Later Life
586; 44,801. For u nmarriei 1 persons: $6,239; 8,819; 12,324; 19 ,094. 5 in Susan G rad. 19% . Income of the Population 55 or Older, 1994. : Sjcial Seen rity Adir linistrat:ion. gov/i statistics/ mcpop5 5> ^5 44 Pathways to Inequality: Intracohort Differentiation over the Life Course lit addition to these general patterns, there are important differences across marital status. Unmarried households tend to be older than the married and are disproportionately female and widowed. They depend more on Social Security benefits arid means-tested public assistance and less on earnings compared to the married.
Workers excluded from the formal market sector or those situated precariously at its margins experience cumulative disadvantage in the 28 Cohorts, Inequality, and Social Change acquisition of income and wealth over a lifetime (Farley 1988; Crystal and Shea 1990). In the most conservative welfare states they may derive fewer benefits as a result of their lower market contributions. Workers with limited labor force participation over a lifetime are not only represented in lower earnings or wage categories, but they are also excluded from income protection structures that take diverse forms in the workplace, including seniority, tenure track, promotional ladders, union-protected job security, and major employee benefits such as pensions and disability and health insurance.
Research on Linkages Across the Life Course Status Maintenance, Status Leveling, or Cumulative Advantage? The empirical literature addressing age-based changes in economic status also reflects the same distinction between views that focus on continuity and discontinuity across phases of the life course. The contrasting patterns of continuity and change between work and retirement phases are conceptualized by Henretta and Campbell (1976; 1978; Campbell and Henretta 1980) through the processes of status maintenance and status leveling.
Age and Inequality: Diverse Pathways Through Later Life by Angela O'rand, John C Henretta