By K. Hamblin
This booklet explores the adoption of 'active ageing' guidelines through EU15 countries and the effect on older peoples' paintings and retirement coverage innovations. guidelines tested comprise unemployment merits, energetic labour industry rules, partial pension receipt, pension ideas, early retirement and incentives for deferral.
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Extra resources for Active Ageing in the European Union: Policy Convergence and Divergence
For example, in terms of gender, the experiences of older women are socially constructed, characterised by choices that were highly constrained within and by three spheres: the state, the market and the family. Indeed, “[g]ender is a crucial organizing principle in the economic and power relations of the social institutions of the family, the state, the market, shaping the experience of old age and ageing and the distribution of resources to older men and women across the lifecourse” (Estes, 2005: 552).
Inequalities related to gender are carried through into old age as due to women’s interrupted or part-time careers, they are often dependent upon their husbands in terms of state and occupational pensions to provide an adequate standard of living in old age (Meyer, 1998). In addition, the effects of sexism in employment can persist into retirement as “the retired executive or doctor, who will more often be a man, will have accrued throughout his life considerable assets as a result of house ownership, investment of savings and occupational pension rights.
To assume an individual would take the most ﬁnancially expedient policy option would rely too readily on a rational choice model. Indeed, individuals may prefer to utilise an early exit route, though it represents a loss of income, as it would provide the freedom to supply care or engage in fulﬁlling voluntary work. Conversely, the presence of generous early exit routes may not mean an individual would automatically leave paid work, which may provide self-fulﬁlment and social networks. In addition, in weighing up employment versus early exit in ﬁnancial terms, an assumption would have to be made about the income from employment, which would limit the model biographies analysis to polarised occupations or would result in an extremely large data matrix.
Active Ageing in the European Union: Policy Convergence and Divergence by K. Hamblin