By Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen
Reviewing exhaustively the present state-of-the-art of tissue engineering innovations for regenerating bones and joints by utilizing biomaterials, progress elements and stem cells, in addition to an research of the interactions among biomaterials, bone cells, development components and additional stem cells and the way jointly skeletal tissues should be optimised, this booklet serves to focus on the significance of biomaterials composition, floor topography, architectural and mechanical houses in offering aid for tissue regeneration.
Maximizing reader insights into the significance of the interaction of those attributes with bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes), this booklet additionally offers a close reference as to how key signalling pathways are activated. The contribution of development elements to force tissue regeneration and stem mobilephone recruitment is mentioned besides a evaluate the aptitude and demanding situations of grownup or embryonic mesenchymal stem cells to extra improve the formation of recent bone and cartilage tissues.
This ebook serves to illustrate the interconnectedness of biomaterials, bone/cartilage cells, development components and stem cells in making a choice on the regenerative technique and hence the medical outcome.
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Extra resources for A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair
M505166200 Kuroda R, Usas A, Kubo S, Corsi K, Peng H, Rose T, Cummins J, Fu FH, Huard J (2006) Cartilage repair using bone morphogenetic protein 4 and muscle-derived stem cells. Arthritis Rheum 54(2):433–442. 21632 Lamplot JD, Qin J, Nan G, Wang J, Liu X, Yin L, Tomal J, Li R, Shui W, Zhang H, Kim SH, Zhang W, Zhang J, Kong Y, Denduluri S, Rogers MR, Pratt A, Haydon RC, Luu HH, Angeles J, Shi LL, He TC (2013) BMP9 signaling in stem cell differentiation and osteogenesis. Am J Stem Cells 2(1):1-21.
These observations provide an example in the bone context of the general observation in biology that apoptosis is a prerequisite for tissue regeneration (Zimmerman et al. 2013). Thus, for example, skin wounds were shown to heal much more slowly in caspase-3 gene deletion mice, in which apoptosis was deficient (Zimmerman et al. 2013). Moreover, it has also been shown that apoptosing cells signal in a range of important ways to neighbouring cells (Boland et al. 2013), which seems to be phenocopied in a uniquely bone manner to accomplish targeted bone repair.
It is well recognised that RANKL is essential for the differentiation and activation of myeloid osteoclast precursors (reviewed in Findlay and Atkins 2011), in which it binds to its cognate receptor, RANK, thereby promoting osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing activity (Yasuda et al. 1998). RANKL is a product of both osteoblasts and osteocytes, as well as other cell types, (Findlay and Atkins 2011), but it was recently reported that osteocytes are the predominant source of RANKL for osteoclastogenesis in adult bone (Nakashima et al.
A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair by Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen