By Charles A. Poynton
No longer a programming or a recipe publication, this can be a entire reference that offers the basic strategies and tactics improvement of electronic video initiatives. This publication is designed for technical humans no longer already video specialists who have to layout, construct and program--hardware and software--systems that come with video.
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The appearance aspects of gamma in film also apply to television and computer displays. Finally, I will describe how video draws aspects of its handling of gamma from all of these areas: knowledge of the CRT from physics, knowledge of the nonuniformity of vision from perception, and knowledge of viewing conditions from photography. I will also discuss additional details of the CRT transfer function that you will need to know if you wish to calibrate a CRT or determine its nonlinearity. Gamma in physics The physics of the electron gun of a CRT imposes a relationship between voltage input and light output that a physicist calls a five-halves power law: The intensity of light produced at the face of the screen is proportional to the voltage input raised to the power 5⁄ .
But a video camera applies a nonlinear transfer function – gamma correction – to the image signal. So the image signal is in a linear optical domain, and the video signal is in a linear electrical domain, but the two domains are not the same. 9 Audio taper. A system is perceptually uniform if a small perturbation to a component value is approximately equally perceptible across the range of that value. The volume control on your radio is designed to be perceptually uniform: Rotating the knob 10 degrees produces approximately the same perceptual increment in volume anywhere across the range of the control.
709 standard for high-definition television (HDTV). 45. Theoretically a pure power function suffices for gamma correction; however, the slope of a pure power function is infinite at zero. In a practical system such as a television camera, in order to minimize noise in the dark regions of the picture it is necessary to limit the slope (gain) of the function near black. Rec. 018, and stretches the remainder of the curve to maintain func102 A TECHNICAL INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL VIDEO tion and tangent continuity at the breakpoint.
A Technical Introduction to Digital Video by Charles A. Poynton