By G Dunn; Brian Everitt
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I I I ... I I I 0 0 ... 0 calculated by dividing each column of values by the standard deviation of the three character values. 12) The shape coefficient, Ci, looks formidable but is essentially nothing more than the variance of the differences in the character states of the OTUs being compared. It is likely to be large when considerable discrepancy in the magnitude of the differences occurs, including a mixture of positive, negative and negligible terms. The size coefficient, C~, will be large when the character states of the two OTUs are quite different in magnitude, and the differences are largely in one direction.
When one moves on to consider the comparison of groups the problems become more difficult. 7 (a) The choice ofa summary statisticfor each character to describe a group or population. This might be a proportion(s) (qualitative characters) or mean value (quantitative characters). (b) Measurement of within-group variation. (c) Construction of a measure of similarity or distance based on (a), and perhaps making allowance for (b). Making allowance for within-group variation might be particularly tricky if this is not constant from one group to another, and there is no reason to believe that it should be.
452 . 3 for an explanation of the characters 1- 19. 1. Note that the sum of squares of the coefficients in each component is unity and that the sum of the latent roots is equal to the sum of the diagonal elements in S. The ftrst principal component accounts for nearly all of the variance in the three characters. 31 (height) The size of the turtle shells could be characterized by this single variable with little loss of information since it alone accounts for some 98% of the variation of the three measurements length, width and height.
A introduction to mathematical taxonomy by G Dunn; Brian Everitt